New Sword 3
Challenge to make "Honjo Masamune" by kokaji

Recently I heard the story of missing sword "Honjo Masamune". That brought me an idea to make a copy of the sword, since I live in a village next to "Honjo" city. It is a kind of joke, but may be interesting to report the work of copying Soshu style.

- At first, what is Soshu style? -
Shape : There is no typical style in Soshu tradition, but it depends with the period.

Steel : It is famous that the steel of Soshu blades are mix forging. That means hard steel and mild steel are mixed.
When the Kamakura government became weak around the beginning of 14th century, they no longer had power to invite master smiths from the west Japan. That is the background of developing Soshu style. And probably, lack of good steel as material also would be caused. The furnace in the western Japan had a system to be specialized to make hard steel mainly. On the other hand, that in the eastern Japan was not so, and it made various kinds of iron those are soft steel, hard steel, and cast iron. In the east Japan there are many cast iron Buddha statues instead of bronze ones in the west Japan. The fact may illustrate that cast iron is more popular in the east Japan than in west Japan. In that situation, smiths in Kamakura city tried to create good steel by the method of mix forging. Mild steel can be harder by adding some amount of too hard steel. Cast iron is too hard (brittle) to forge by hammer, but it can be used by smith through Oroshi-gane method. Mix forging is common way to save good steel (proper hardness for edge). But still, the steel of Soshu blades doesn't look so sensitive comparing with good Bizen blades in the same period. Then, those steel have to be heated and quenched from higher temperature to get proper hardness on edge. Such work makes the steel crystallization larger.

Steel construction : I have studied many Soshu blades, so-called "Soshu style" blades, and fake ones. I studied several Masamune in museums, but I have never studied real Masamune in my hand. All of my Masamune in my hand were no signature. And so were Sadamune. Studying real Soshu blades, all of them have the wrapping style in steel construction. It is kobuse, makuri or some style like that. On the other hand, most of "Soshu style" blades or fake blades have three layers style (sam'mai, hon-sam'mai, or like that). It is strange. It is Mino style in fact.

Hamon and utsuri : As I mentioned, the hamon is made of large particles what is caused by high temperature heating at the hardening work. The hamon pattern is straight or choji. And sometimes other patterns also are found. But it is difficult to distinguish natural activity and intentional design. Anyway the hamon pattern is not well ordered because of high temperature heating. It looks active for peoples eye. The utsuri is not very clear, but still exist. Sometimes it is clear as shirake pattern. Unfortunately, it is difficult to research utsuri in the blades with modern polishing. Such a polishing work emphasizes the layer pattern to show it more Soshu style like.

- About Honjo Masamune - (Information from some books)
Blade length 65.2cm
Curvature 1.7cm
Shape : shinogi-zukuri style, two surface back, wide blade with thin thickness, long kissaki, narrow shinogi-ji, high shinogi line.
Steel texture : small wood grain layer pattern is dense, fine steel particles, chikei (by mix forging?).
Hamon : made of small particles (ko-nie), its pattern is O-midare and ko-midare with jumping hamon, kinsuji, ashi.
No engravings
Tang : O-suriage (no original tang remains), end is kengyo shape, 1 peg hole.
There is one big nick on the edge at the lower part of blade, and several smaller nicks on the edge and on the back.

- Forging -
Select the steel

I selected the steel pieces that come from the lowest priced tamahagane from NBTHK. Those include uneven hardness in themselves. It may be close to the situation of Soshu smiths in the end of Kamakura period.

For the outer steel (in Kobuse style), I picked various hardness of steel pieces, and put on the forging handle.

The outer steel is forged out after 15 times fold'n welding. It is cut from the handle and still covered with ash.

Outer steel for Kobuse style construction

For the core steel, a little milder steel is selected, and start fold'n welding.
On the work of 8 time folding

The core steel is forged out after 14 times folding.
And then, the outer steel and the core steel are welded to one steel block in Kobuse style.

On the half way of drawing out

It is drawn out to the blade length.

Shaped by hammer work with fire

Shaped by plane and files

Preparing for hardening work, clay is put on the blade. And dry.

Full moon in the sky and no wind. It is a good night for hardening work.

Just after quenching. The blade got bent by the quenching work.

Remove the clay, and fix the bent

Of course, this blade has fumbari. Because I suspect the original shape of "Honjo Masamune". So the blade length also is 77 cm.

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